Scientific method

The scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge.[2] To be termed scientific, a method of inquiry is commonly based on empirical or measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning.[3] The Oxford Dictionaries Online define the scientific method as “a method or procedure that has characterized natural science since the 17th century, consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses“.[4] Experiments need to be designed to test hypotheses. The most important part of the scientific method is the experiment.[5]

Lean Thinking

Lean thinking is a business methodology that aims to provide a new way to think about how to organize human activities to deliver more benefits to society and value to individuals while eliminating waste. The term lean thinking was coined by James P. Womack and Daniel T. Jones[1] to capture the essence of their in-depth study of Toyota’s fabled Toyota Production System.[2] Lean thinking is a new way of thinking any activity and seeing the waste inadvertently generated by the way the process is organized by focusing on the concepts of: Value, Value streams, Flow, Pull, Perfection.